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THE BIOWORLD BIOME: Our Habitat for All Things Science

HONG KONG – A multidisciplinary research team from Singapore has made a significant breakthrough in the understanding of the molecular basis of benign fibroadenomas, one of the most common breast tumors in women, which could have important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of malignant breast cancers.
METAMORPHOSIS
Researchers have discovered more than 200 splice variants in a class of enzymes known for its involvement in the synthesis of transfer RNAs, the aminocayl tRNA synthetases (AARSs). Most of those splice variants did not include the catalytic domains that are necessary for specifying tRNAs.
LONDON – A multitude of genes contribute to the age at which a girl has her first menstrual bleed, but many of them also are involved in determining levels of body fat and body mass index (BMI), a huge new international study has found. Those genes have the potential to aid a better understanding of the biology of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and breast cancer.

Pre-eclampsia is one of the more frequent problems in pregnancy. It occurs in about 3 percent to 5 percent of pregnancy cases worldwide. Now, researchers at Nationwide Children's Hospital have shown that pre-eclampsia shares features with a disease that becomes a problem at the other end of the life span: Alzheimer's disease, and neurodegenerative disorders more generally.

PSYCHIATRY'S MANHATTAN PROJECT?
Psychiatry's net gains Tuesday: 108 new schizophrenia genetic loci and $650 million. The former were published in the July 22, 2014, online issue of Nature by the Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, a collaboration of more than 300 scientists at dozens of institutions.
Defects in fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) may help to explain the pathology in some cases of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), possibly leading to the development of tailor-made therapies for those mental disorders, Japanese neuroscientists reported.
HONG KONG — Researchers here have elucidated a previously unknown signaling pathway involved in mediating the synaptic dysfunctions associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and have identified a promising new small-molecule disease-modifying intervention that may delay progress of the disease.
BREATHING ROOM
Successful organ transplantation starts with a race against time. When a donor organ becomes available, the current way to keep it going long enough for it to reach its lucky next owner is quite simple. It is flushed with a solution that was developed at the University of Wisconsin.
ENDING IMMUNODOMINANCE
The notion of a broad-spectrum T cell may, at first blush, sound like an oxymoron. The T and B cells of the adaptive immune system are, after all, best known for their exquisite specificity.

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