The U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia ruled against Vanda Pharmaceuticals Inc., of Washington, in a lawsuit originally filed in February 2019 in which the company challenged the FDA’s legal authority to issue a partial clinical hold on testing of NK1 antagonist tradipitant in gastroparesis. The agency placed the hold on further human testing, requiring data from additional chronic toxicity studies in canines, monkeys or minipigs before it would allow a clinical protocol beyond 12 weeks in humans. Vanda argued the additional animal studies were unjustified and unethical. The court ruled in the FDA’s favor in both procedural and scientific arguments. Vanda said it is currently reviewing the decision and will determine the appropriate next steps.