Clinicians at the University of Maryland have transplanted a heart from a genetically modified pig bred by Revivicor Inc., a subsidiary of United Therapeutics Corp., into a patient with end-stage heart failure.
Space travel has known effects on human health and biology. Some, such as loss of bone density, are well understood, while others, like inflammation, are not. Now, organ-on-a-chip maker Emulate Inc. is conducting experiments on the International Space Station U.S. National Laboratory (ISS-NL) aimed at revealing clues to how the brain functions in microgravity.
University of California San Diego engineers have developed tiny 2D sensors that pop up to become a 3D assemblage of microscopic sensors for directly measuring the movement and speed of electrical signals inside the heart. According to nanoengineering professor Sheng Xu, the nanotechnology has enormous implications for heart doctors anxious to better diagnose and treat arrhythmia, heart attack and other diseases.
In a recent study, investigators led by Tony Tiganis at Monash University, Australia have identified that upregulation of the enzyme NOX4 (NADPH oxidase 4) boosted levels of reactive oxygen species and protected development of insulin resistance in both aged as well as obese mice.
Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania’s Perelman School of Medicine have shown how nanoparticles could be used to reduce neutrophil clumping in inflamed lungs – making them a pathway for diagnosis and treatment of acute lung inflammation (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
It is acknowledged that the huge bias toward individuals of European ancestry means studies of the contribution of genetics to disease may not translate well to other ethnicities. That point is underlined in the first large-scale investigation of the population structure and demographic history of British Pakistanis, which shows an increased number and length of regions of homozygosity inherited from a common ancestor, and greatly elevated identity by descent, compared to the population at large.
An international study led by scientists at the University of Exeter in the U.K. suggests how to combine antibiotic and bacteriophage therapy optimally, in order to reduce antibiotic use and potentially prevent multidrug resistance in bacteria.
Far from the Groundhog Day spectacle of amyloid-targeting antibodies that do little to nothing for patients in trial after trial, researchers have reported success in reducing the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in unexpected ways. Researchers at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation have discovered that a Viagra prescription was associated with a roughly 70% reduced risk of being diagnosed with AD. And investigators from the University of Washington reported that in the prospective Adult Changes in Thought study, a long-term study into risk and protective factors for dementia, persons who underwent cataract surgery reduced their risk of AD by 30%, an effect that lasted for 10 years after surgery.
In the Dec. 3, 2021, issue of Science, researchers reported that a missense variant that is highly enriched in the Amish population was associated with reduced levels of both LDL cholesterol and fibrinogen. To date, very few variants have been identified that affect more than one risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
LONDON – A pilot study has shown that whole genome sequencing can pinpoint the genetic causes of rare diseases, even in people who had previously not been given a diagnosis after undergoing sequencing of their protein coding exome.